The pervasive issue of overfishing in the Mediterranean Sea raises concerns due to its ecological, and economic repercussions. This complex challenge stems from root causes, impacting marine biodiversity and communities dependent on fishing. The global significance of overfishing is emphasized, contributing to the disruption of the delicate Mediterranean ecosystem with far-reaching consequences worldwide. Urgent discussions stress the need for sustainable fishing practices, international cooperation, and marine conservation efforts to protect ecosystems, support local economies, and contribute to global initiatives safeguarding ocean health.